Iberian spleen - liquid sex - Myrrh - Wikipedia

= Present, no further details    = Widespread    = Localised
= Confined and subject to quarantine    = Occasional or few reports
= Evidence of pathogen    = Last reported...    = Presence unconfirmed

Persia remained largely impenetrable to English-speaking travelers well into the 19th century. Persia was protected from Europe by overland trade routes that passed through territory inhospitable to foreigners, while trade at Persian ports in the Persian Gulf was in the hands of locals. In contrast, intrepid English traders operated in Mediterranean seaports of the Levant from the 1570s, and some vocabulary describing features of Ottoman culture found their way into the English language. Thus many words in the list below, though originally from Persian , arrived in English through the intermediary of Ottoman Turkish language .

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